Much research examines the professional nursing practices of traditional and modern caregivers, but it remains unclear whether the delivery of extra-required services is diminished as the caregiver moves from traditional to modern community. Building on the classical works of sociologists Ferdinand Tonnies, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim, this paper discusses traditional and modern caregiver practices to see whether extra-required services are currently being offered in city-based care settings. Using data from a purposive sample of 21 registered nurses and nursing assistants at six long-term care centers in the cities of Toronto, Ontario; Miami, Florida; and New York, New York, this paper examines registered nurses' (RNs') traditional and modern caregiving practices. Findings suggest that extra-required services are more richly provided in traditional communities than in urban city settings. Differences exist in both the form and extent of delivering extra caregiving services in the two types of settings. Implications of these finding are discussed relative to recruitment of foreign nurses.
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