We have obtained a polymer wall-stabilized smectic A liquid crystal to be used for bistable flexible displays. The polymer wall structure optimally connects the two substrates together, thus providing maximum flexibility as compared to the polymer dispersed liquid crystal. Moreover, all the intrinsic bistable properties of the smectic A material are preserved. We analyzed the pixel performance and demonstrated very good electro-optical characteristics, high contrast ratio, and excellent stability of the states. The polymer wall-stabilized smectic A on flexible substrates has high potential to be used as electronic paper.
Three-Dimensional Imaging of Dielectric Patterns in Electrohydrodynamic Convection of a Nematic Liquid Crystal10/05/2006
The transition from surface to bulk normal dielectric rolls in a nematic liquid crystal is imaged by fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy. The three-dimensional director structure and the liquid flow are scanned in both the layer plane and the transverse plane. Two systems of small-scale convective flow are formed, one at each electrode. Strong anchoring makes director oscillations difficult and charges accumulate by the Carr-Helfrich mechanism. The middle region is a structureless convection where the director oscillates with the frequency of the applied voltage. The small-scale flow eventually fills the cell from one electrode to the other as one system of thin and elongated rolls. The true dielectric mode is not a director pattern, rather a surface flow instability.