- This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Aging Consumers and Drug Marketing: Senior Citizens' Views on DTC Advertising, the Medicare Prescription Drug Programme and Pharmaceutical Retailing06/01/2008
Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising in the United States has dramatically increased as pharmaceutical companies have benefi ted from targeting consumers with messages about prescription medications. This study examines DTC advertising from the perspective of senior citizens, the group that uses the most prescription drugs per capita, and reveals their views on DTC advertising, the Medicare prescription drug insurance programme and pharmaceutical retailing. The fi ndings are compared to a prior study of adult consumers and reveal that the elderly are less aware of pharmaceutical advertising, but are similar to adult consumers on their opinions of DTC advertisements. Implications for public policy and pharmaceutical retailing are discussed.
Consumer Attitudes Toward Pharmaceutical Direct‐to‐Consumer Advertising: An Empirical Study and the Role of Income06/01/2008
– The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer attitudes toward direct‐to‐consumer (DTC) advertising and whether consumer attitudes regarding these types of advertisements differ based on income.
– A sample of 168 consumers completed the survey on‐site at a pharmacy while waiting for their prescription(s) to be filled.
– The findings indicated that low‐income consumers were more likely than higher income customers to: report being persuaded by DTC advertising to ask for an advertised drug; go to the doctor based on symptoms described in DTC advertising; and to prefer branded medication over generic alternatives.
– The results provide useful information to policy makers and drug companies. The finding that these advertisements appear to impact lower income consumers to a greater extent than their higher‐income counterparts has both positive and negative implications. On the positive side, these ads appear to influence unhealthy, low‐income consumers to seek medical treatment. The negative implication concerns the effectiveness of DTC advertising in persuading low‐income consumer to prefer more expensive, branded drugs over generic alternatives.
– Limited research has been done on the relationship between consumer perceptions of DTC advertising and differences in consumer groups based on income.
Urban Senior Citizens' Versus Rural Consumers' Views of DTC Advertising: A Preliminary Investigation01/01/2009
This study examines direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising by comparing the views of urban senior citizens to rural consumers; the study, therefore, compares two groups that frequently use prescription drugs. The findings reveal that older urban consumers are less likely to believe that DTC advertising accurately portrays side effects and risks or to go to a physician based on these advertisements as compared to their rural counterparts. Older urban consumers were more aware of the Medicare Part D drug insurance programme, but less satisfied with these programmes compared to rural residents who were also Medicare Part D participants. The paper closes with a discussion of the implications of these findings.
The Impact of Perceived Closeness on the Differing Roles of Satisfaction, Trust, Commitment, and Comfort on Intention to Remain with a Physician01/01/2009
This study extends previous research by examining perceived closeness as a moderator of traditional relationship measures such as satisfaction, trust, commitment, and psychological comfort, and the impact of each on the intention of the patient to remain with his/her physician. Our findings reveal that in cases where the patient feels close to the physician, psychological comfort with the physician is the most important factor in predicting patient retention. For those who feel less close to the physician, satisfaction is theprimary predictor of patient retention. Therefore, as a close relationship develops between the patient and doctor, the patient's comfort level becomes increasingly important as an exit barrier, even outweighing patient satisfaction.