Planning is identified as a key activity of hospital management. Planning processes are examined for 75 hospitals in the national Strengthening Hospital Nursing Program (SHNP). The nature of the planning process is presented with a focus on professional participation in planning, differences between single and networked hospitals, and the development of planning teams. The importance of certain elements for planning teams is considered. Part 2 (June 1992 issue) will examine the planning characteristics between Phase 2 selected and nonselected hospitals. Part 3 will explore the differences among professional disciplines in planning.
Traffic congestion on a university campus: a consideration of unconventional remedies to nontraditional transportation patterns12/01/2007
U.S. transportation data suggest that the number of vehicle miles traveled has far surpassed new capacity, resulting in increased traffic congestion in many communities throughout the country. This article reports on traffic congestion around a university campus located within a small town. The mix of trip purposes varies considerably in this context, with the majority of trips related to student movement to and from classes. The university itself becomes a major traffic generator, but in a complex way. This article describes how congestion in a university setting differs from that in a non-university setting; what components drive this congestion; how best to reduce this congestion while adhering to overall university planning objectives; and how to set a foundation for traffic management strategies that provide environmental, social, and economic benefit to the university and, importantly, to the surrounding community. The information presented here applies beyond the campus setting to any community that contains nontraditional traffic generators and shows why context does matter when analyzing and managing traffic.