Geospatial Study of Psychiatric Mental Health-Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (PMH-APRNs) in the United States12/01/2011
The objectives of this study were to identify geographic regions with shortages of psychiatric mental health-advanced practice registered nurses (PMH-APRNs), describe rural-urban differences in the distribution of PMH-APRNs, and discuss implications of the uneven geographic distribution.
The data source was a complete listing, provided by the American Nurses Credentialing Center, of the employment zip codes of certified PMH-APRNs during 2007 (N=10,452). Geographic information science techniques and spatial statistics were used to conduct a cluster analysis of the spatial distribution of PMH-APRNs.
After adjustment for population on the basis of U.S. census reports, statistically significant clusters of counties with high and low density of PMH-APRNs, an indicator of uneven accessibility, were identified. Rural-urban differences in the distribution were also illustrated.
The interdisciplinary approach, including both mapping and statistical analyses, identified shortage areas and provided the groundwork for directing future education, clinical practice, and public policy initiatives.