This paper reports a study of fitness indicator theory in chimpanzees. First, it establishes a theoretical perspective for the study of fitness indicator theory and the relationships among indicators of fitness in humans and other animals. Second, it describes a methodology for assessing facial fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in a sample (N = 21) of zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Third, associations among chimpanzee facial FA and health are described. FA was positively associated with negative health symptoms, and negatively associated with general health. Results are discussed under the framework of good genes theory.