Libraries during the classical period in Greece and Rome flourished. These first literate Western societies, promoted literacy and laid the foundation for the development of libraries and the profession of Library and Information Science. However, literacy declined during the middleages and as a result books and libraries all but vanished. One institution survived that was devoted to the preservation of the written word: the Catholic Church. The role of priests and monasteries in the development of cataloging, preservation and the organization of manuscript production pioneered what are common practices in the library profession today. This study traces the evolution of the Catholic Church in the historic development of libraries. A historical approach is used that includes documentary research. Two overarching research questions will be explored: In what ways did the Catholic Church impact the historical development of the Library and Information Science profession? What is the impact of that role today? Findings will provide insight into the relationship of the Catholic Church and its role not only in the development of library and information science, but also its important role in the preservation of religious texts and other information objects.