This article investigates the efficacy of community organizing by African Caribbean migrants in Toronto, Ontario. The author argues that community organizing was an instinctive initiative of African Caribbean people. Historically, Black community organizational agenda, although owing much to its own resourcefulness and fortitude, was intimately connected to the influence and strength of the larger White population. Racism and social exclusions were the major external factors influencing the majority of African Caribbean institutional building. In recreating community, African Caribbean people were influenced by this political milieu. Nevertheless, they were also influenced by their own internal desires and dreams of a better standard of living and a better life for their children. They were also subjected by, for example, their own ideas regarding class, culture, gender roles, family ties, work ethic, and diasporic connections that influenced how they (re)negotiate community.
Journal of Black Studies
Gooden, Amoaba (2008). Community Organizing by African Caribbean People in Toronto, Ontario. Journal of Black Studies 38(3) 413-426. doi: 10.1177/0021934707309134. Retrieved from https://oaks.kent.edu/paspubs/5