In this chapter, we provide readers with the first formal overview of case-based complexity science and its related methodology, case-based modeling. Case-based modeling, championed largely by , constitutes a fifth major method for modeling complex systems, offering itself as an alternative to (and also integration of) agent (rule-based) modeling, dynamical (equation-based) modeling, qualitative (idiographic) modeling, and statistical (aggregate-based) modeling. For us, as medical sociologists, case-based modeling makes sense because, fundamentally, medicine is about the case. Case-based modeling also resonates with our particular practice of a case-based complexity science, which can be defined as a generalist approach, grounded in the epistemological perspectives of Byrne’s complex realism—which we explain later.
Castellani, B., Schimpf, C., & Hafferty, F. (2013). Medical sociology and case-based complexity science: A user's guide. In J. P. Sturmberg & C. M. Martin (Eds.), Handbook of systems and complexity in health (pp. 521–535). New York, NY: Springer.