Coupling of vertical, horizontal and rotory motions in manipulators slows down calculating speed for real time control and lowers system energy efficiency. Pantograph mechanisms can be, and are being used as manipulators to remove the coupling of motion. In this paper, the basic theorems and equations of both two- and three-dimensional pantograph mechanisms are presented. The motion characteristics and singularities of the pantograph are also discussed. Methods which are used to determine the workspaces of pantograph type manipulators are developed and illustrated in an example. Some aspects of structural design of these pantographs are also discussed.
Mechanism and Machine Theory
Song, Shin-Min; Lee, Jong-Kil; Waldron, Kenneth J. (1987). Motion Study of Two- and Three-Dimensional Pantograph Mechanisms. Mechanism and Machine Theory 22(4) 321-331. doi: 10.1016/0094-114X(87)90021-8. Retrieved from https://oaks.kent.edu/caestpubs/34