The surface alignment of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals can not only be planar (tangential) but also homeotropic, with self-assembled aggregates perpendicular to the substrate, as demonstrated by mapping optical retardation and by three-dimensional imaging of the director field. With time, the homeotropic nematic undergoes a transition into a tangential state. The anchoring transition is discontinuous and can be described by a double-well anchoring potential with two minima corresponding to tangential and homeotropic orientation.
Physical Review Letters
Copyright 2010 American Physical Society. Available on publisher's site at http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.017801
Nazarenko, V. G.; Boiko, O. P.; Park, Heung-Shik; Brodyn, O. M.; Omelchenko, M. M.; Tortora, Luana; Nastishin, Yuriy A.; Lavrentovich, Oleg (2010). Surface Alignment and Anchoring Transitions in Nematic Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal. Physical Review Letters 105(1) doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.017801. Retrieved from https://oaks.kent.edu/cpippubs/220