This paper examines the impact of the national sports lottery (toto) in 2001 and the 2002 FIFA World Cup for the Japan Professional Soccer League--J. League. In 2001 J. League attendances grew dramatically and were sustained in subsequent years, even though member clubs did not change many of their marketing strategies and chose to maintain a distance from toto. The evidence suggests that hosting the World Cup allowed the league to leverage the country's hosting of the event in order to generate long-term interest and attendance at J. League games. By contrast, toto appears to have had a short-term impact.
Funk, Daniel C.; Nakazawa, Makoto; Mahony, Daniel F.; Thrasher, Robert G. (2006). The Impact of the National Sports Lottery and the FIFA World Cup on Attendance, Spectator Motives and J. League Marketing Strategies. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship 7(3) 267-285. Retrieved from https://oaks.kent.edu/flapubs/43